I use soap to
- wash my body I don’t like using soap on my face so I cleanse with oil and water.
- instead of shampoo.
- washing the bath and other household cleaning chores.
Soap is made from lye, oils or fats (animal or vegetable) and water.
When these three are mixed together a chemical process called saponification takes place. The end result is soap
In the olden days soap makers used lye obtained from wood ashes. Find out how, here.
Modern day soap makers use Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda. This is made from salt and is very caustic See how that is made here.
In the olden days making soap was a labour intensive process. There were plenty of animal fats but making lye took forever. And it wasn’t very reliable. Then in 1791 French chemist Le Blanc discovered how to make Soda Ash from salt. Soap got much easier and cheaper to make and the great unwashed could finally afford a bar in every home.
How does it work
Alkaline & Organic Soils
Soap is alkaline which means it will work well with organic soils ( dirt). Alkaline emulsify grease. Fatty acids are normally insoluble which is why they cannot be cleaned using water alone. The alkaline breaks down fat making them dispersable in water. Read more here
Soap & Germs
But folk were not just cleaner but safer too. Soap does actually kills germs but it does a good job of physically removing them.
Whats in YOUR soap
Here are some of the things you might find in your soap.
sodium tallowate is from animal fat usually from cows
Sodium lauryl sulfate (commonly known as SLS) and Sodium laureth sulphate and sodium laurel sulphate also attract dirt so work in the same way as soap but they create more lather. This is the main reason they are added – to create lots of lovely lather. They are a known skin irritant. Internet claims that they cause cancer are unproven.
Synthetic fragrance – which may contain DEO a phthalate used as a solvent and fixative. Despite the general bad press about phthalates this one is considered safe.
Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) are used in soap making because they make the soap more bubbly and result in a harder bar.
Palm oil – comes from Malaysia and Indonesia. They have cut down hundreds of acres of rainforest to make way for huge plantations of palm oil. This has impacted adversely on the habitat of the orangutang a now endangered species. You can find out more about it and why we minimise our use of palm oil, here .
I don’t buy soap wrapped in plastic.I don’t even buy soap wrapped in boxes – there’s no need for it. I buy soap loose.
There are a lot of artisan soap makers producing high quality sustainable soaps. You will find them for sale in health food shops and on Etsy.
Or you could make your own. Read this from Jen of Make Do And Mend Life
Here are some recipes for making Castille Soap